Research Article
BibTex RIS Cite

Analysis of Warm and Cold Season Thunderstorms for Istanbul

Year 2024, Volume: 10 Issue: 1, 89 - 102, 28.01.2024
https://doi.org/10.21324/dacd.1331804

Abstract

A thunderstorm (TS) is a severe weather phenomenon characterized by intense showers, hail, lightning, thunder, tornadoes, turbulence, and gusty winds. It occurs in vertically developed Cumulonimbus (Cb) clouds due to atmospheric instability and has a spatial resolution (meso-scale) of 1 - 100 km. This phenomenon occurs mainly in spring and early summer in our country due to the uplift and condensation of moist and unstable air masses. However, in recent years, these events have become more frequent during mid-summer, early autumn, and even winter months. In this study, the characteristics of TS events in Istanbul, covering the period from 2013 to 2022, including the warm season (May-September) and the cold season (October-April), were examined, and the atmospheric conditions under which they occur were identified. Aviation observations from Sabiha Gökçen International Airport were used to determine the occurrence of TS events, and data from Istanbul Kartal Radiosonde Station were analyzed to obtain upper-level atmospheric parameters. The occurrence of individual TS events or their association with other phenomena was investigated, and the statistics were presented. The daily, monthly, and yearly analyses of TS events during the period were conducted, and the changes in meteorological parameters for both the warm and cold seasons were statistically presented. Meteorological parameters such as temperature, dew point temperature, wind speed, wind direction, and relative humidity were analyzed for both warm and cold season TS events. Additionally, the average changes in each thermodynamic index and atmospheric stability parameter for hot and cold season oraj events were examined using a total of eight indices and parameters.

References

  • Akram, T., Akter, F., Mallik, M. A. K., Tabassum, F., Hassan, S. M. Q., & Faruq, M. O. (2022). Recent climatology of thunderstorm days over Bangladesh. Journal of Climate Studies, 12(3), 112-130.
  • All Met Sat. (2023). İstanbul Sabiha Gökçen Uluslararası Havalimanı konum bilgileri. 30 Nisan 2023’de https://en.allmetsat.com/metar-taf/turkey.php?icao=LTFJ adresinden alındı.
  • Apostol, L. (2008). The Mediterranean cyclones–the role in ensuring water resources and their potential of climatic risk, in the east of Romania. Present Environment and Sustainable Development, 2, 143-163.
  • Arslan, H., Baltacı, H., Akkoyunlu, B. O., Karanfil, S., & Tayanç, M. (2020). Wind speed variability and wind power potential over Turkey: case studies for Çanakkale and İstanbul. Renewable Energy, 145, 1020-1032. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2019.06.128
  • Bunkers, M. J., & Hjelmfelt, M. R. (2021). Thunderstorm downbursts: windstorms and blowdowns (Second edition). In E. Johnson & K. Miyanishi (Eds.), Plant Disturbance Ecology, (pp. 65-115). Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-818813-2.00003-4, 2021. 
  • Iowa State University. (2023, 27 Şubat). ASOS-AWOS-METAR data download. Iowa environmental mesonet. 27 Şubat 2023’de https://mesonet.agron.iastate.edu/request/download.phtml adresinden alındı.
  • Kahraman, A. (2017, 16-19 Ekim). Konvektif fazların evrimi: 27 Temmuz 2017 Marmara vakası [Bildiri sunumu]. III. Meteorolojik Uzaktan Algılama Sempozyumu, Antalya, Türkiye.
  • Kahraman, A., Ural, D., & Önol, B. (2020). Future changes in Euro-Mediterrenean daytime severe thunderstorm environments based on an RCP8.5 Med-Cordex simulation. Atmosphere, 11(8), Article 822. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11080822
  • Karan, H. (2007). Thermodynamic and kinematic characteristics of low-level convergence zones observed by the mobile integrated profiling system [PhD Thesis, University of Alabama]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PhDT.......173K/abstract
  • Ma, R., Sun, J., Yang, X. (2021). An eight-year climatology of the warm-season severe thunderstorm environments over North China. Atmospheric Research, 254, Article 105519. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosres.2021.105519
  • Meteoroloji 1. Bölge Müdürlüğü. (2023). Bölge Müdürlüğü Gözlem Şebekemiz. 30 Nisan 2023’de https://istanbul.mgm.gov.tr/istasyonlar.aspx adresinden alındı.
  • Mohr, S., Wandel, J., Lenggenhager, S., & Martins, O. (2019). Relationship between atmospheric blocking and warm-season thunderstorms over western and central Europe. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 145(724), 3040-3056. https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.3603
  • Özdemir, E. T., Deniz, A., Sezen, İ., Aslan, Z., & Yavuz, V. (2017). Investigation of thunderstorms over Ataturk International Airport (LTBA), Istanbul. Mausam, 68(1), 175-180.
  • Sharma, P., Sen B., Balling, J. R. C., Roy, S. S., & Sen Roy, S. (2023). Diurnal cycle of summer season thunderstorm activity in India. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 151(3-4), 1567-1583. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00704-022-04339-3
  • Tilev-Tanriover, Ş., Kahraman, A., Kadioglu, M., & Schultz, D. M. (2015). Lightning fatalities and injuries in Turkey. Natural Hazards and Earth System Science, 15(8), 1881-1888. https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-15-1881-2015
  • UCAR. (2023). How thunderstorms form. 28 Nisan 2023’de https://scied.ucar.edu/learning-zone/storms/how-thunderstorms-form adresinden alındı.
  • Unal, Y. S., Toros, H., Deniz, A., & Incecik, S. (2011). Influence of meteorological factors and emission sources on spatial and temporal variations of PM10 concentrations in Istanbul metropolitan area. Atmospheric Environment, 45(31), 5504–5513.
  • University of Wyoming. (2023). Upper-level atmospheric charts. 30 Nisan 2023’de http://weather.uwyo.edu/upperair/sounding.html adresinden alındı.
  • Yavuz, V., Özdemir, E. T., & Deniz, A. (2020). Nowcasting of a thunderstorm: The case study of 2 February, 2015 at Istanbul Ataturk International Airport. Mausam, 71(1), 21-32.
  • Yavuz, V., Özen, C., Çapraz, Ö., Özdemir, E. T., Deniz, A., Akbayır, İ., & Temur, H. (2022a). Analysing of atmospheric conditions and their effects on air quality in Istanbul using SODAR and CEILOMETER. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 29(11), 16213-16232. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-16958-w
  • Yavuz, V., Lupo, A. R., Fox, N. I., & Deniz, A. (2022b). Statistical characteristics of sea-effect snow events over the western Black Sea. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 150, 955-968. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00704-022-04213-2
  • Yavuz, V., Deniz, A., Özdemir, E. T., Karan, H., & Temiz, C. (2022c). Long-term thunderstorm analysis at airports in the Marmara Region: types and favourable atmospheric conditions. International Journal of Global Warming, 28(1), 81-95. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJGW.2022.125083
  • Yavuz, V., Lupo, A. R., Fox, N. I., & Deniz, A. (2022d). A long-term analysis of thundersnow events over the Marmara Region, Turkey. Natural Hazards, 114, 367-387. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-022-05393-w
  • Yavuz, V., Özdaş, M., Lupo, A. R., Fox, N. I., & Deniz, A. (2023). Historical extreme winters of Istanbul: the factors that contributed to severe winters during the 20th and 21st centuries. International Journal of Global Warming, 29(4), 350-361. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJGW.2023.130134
  • Yavuz, V. (2023). An analysis of atmospheric stability indices and parameters under air pollution conditions. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 195, Article 934. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-023-11556-4

İstanbul İçin Sıcak ve Soğuk Sezon Orajlarının Analizi

Year 2024, Volume: 10 Issue: 1, 89 - 102, 28.01.2024
https://doi.org/10.21324/dacd.1331804

Abstract

Oraj (TS), atmosferik kararsızlık sonucu dikey gelişimli Cumulonimbus (Cb) bulutlarında oluşan, 1 - 100 km mekânsal çözünürlüğe (mezo-ölçek) sahip, kuvvetli sağanak yağış, dolu, şimşek, yıldırım, hortum, türbülans ve rüzgar hamlesi ile karakterize edilen şiddetli hava fenomenidir. Nemli ve kararsız hava kütlelerinin yükselip yoğuşması sonucu meydana gelen bu fenomen, ülkemizde genellikle ilkbahar ve yaz başlarında meydana gelmektedir. Fakat son yıllarda, yaz ortalarında, sonbahar başlarında ve hatta kış aylarında da bu hadiseler sık yaşanır hale gelmiştir. Bu çalışmada, İstanbul için 2013-2022 yıllarını kapsayan 10 yıllık periyot dahilinde, sıcak sezon (Mayıs-Eylül) ve soğuk sezon (Ekim-Nisan) orajlarının karakteristikleri incelenmiş ve meydana geldiği atmosferik koşullar ortaya konulmuştur. Çalışmada orajlı zamanların tespiti için Sabiha Gökçen Uluslararası Havalimanı havacılık rasatları kullanılmış, yukarı seviye atmosferik parametrelere ait verilerin temini için İstanbul Kartal Radyosonde İstasyonu verileri analiz edilmiştir. Her iki dönem için de orajların tekil ya da herhangi bir hadise ile birlikte meydana gelip gelmediği incelenmiş ve istatistikleri ortaya konulmuştur. Periyot dahilinde orajların gün içi, aylık ve yıllık bazda analizleri gerçekleştirilmiş, sıcak ve soğuk sezon için ayrı ayrı meteorolojik parametrelerde meydana gelen değişimler istatistiksel olarak sunulmuştur. Sıcaklık, çiy noktası sıcaklığı, rüzgar şiddeti, rüzgar yönü ve bağıl nem gibi meteorolojik parametreler hem sıcak hem de soğuk sezon orajları için istatistiksel olarak analiz edilmiştir. Ayrıca, toplamda sekiz adet termodinamik indeks ve atmosferik kararlılık parametresi kullanılarak, sıcak ve soğuk sezon orajlarının her bir indeks ve parametredeki ortalama değişimleri incelenmiştir.

References

  • Akram, T., Akter, F., Mallik, M. A. K., Tabassum, F., Hassan, S. M. Q., & Faruq, M. O. (2022). Recent climatology of thunderstorm days over Bangladesh. Journal of Climate Studies, 12(3), 112-130.
  • All Met Sat. (2023). İstanbul Sabiha Gökçen Uluslararası Havalimanı konum bilgileri. 30 Nisan 2023’de https://en.allmetsat.com/metar-taf/turkey.php?icao=LTFJ adresinden alındı.
  • Apostol, L. (2008). The Mediterranean cyclones–the role in ensuring water resources and their potential of climatic risk, in the east of Romania. Present Environment and Sustainable Development, 2, 143-163.
  • Arslan, H., Baltacı, H., Akkoyunlu, B. O., Karanfil, S., & Tayanç, M. (2020). Wind speed variability and wind power potential over Turkey: case studies for Çanakkale and İstanbul. Renewable Energy, 145, 1020-1032. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2019.06.128
  • Bunkers, M. J., & Hjelmfelt, M. R. (2021). Thunderstorm downbursts: windstorms and blowdowns (Second edition). In E. Johnson & K. Miyanishi (Eds.), Plant Disturbance Ecology, (pp. 65-115). Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-818813-2.00003-4, 2021. 
  • Iowa State University. (2023, 27 Şubat). ASOS-AWOS-METAR data download. Iowa environmental mesonet. 27 Şubat 2023’de https://mesonet.agron.iastate.edu/request/download.phtml adresinden alındı.
  • Kahraman, A. (2017, 16-19 Ekim). Konvektif fazların evrimi: 27 Temmuz 2017 Marmara vakası [Bildiri sunumu]. III. Meteorolojik Uzaktan Algılama Sempozyumu, Antalya, Türkiye.
  • Kahraman, A., Ural, D., & Önol, B. (2020). Future changes in Euro-Mediterrenean daytime severe thunderstorm environments based on an RCP8.5 Med-Cordex simulation. Atmosphere, 11(8), Article 822. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11080822
  • Karan, H. (2007). Thermodynamic and kinematic characteristics of low-level convergence zones observed by the mobile integrated profiling system [PhD Thesis, University of Alabama]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PhDT.......173K/abstract
  • Ma, R., Sun, J., Yang, X. (2021). An eight-year climatology of the warm-season severe thunderstorm environments over North China. Atmospheric Research, 254, Article 105519. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosres.2021.105519
  • Meteoroloji 1. Bölge Müdürlüğü. (2023). Bölge Müdürlüğü Gözlem Şebekemiz. 30 Nisan 2023’de https://istanbul.mgm.gov.tr/istasyonlar.aspx adresinden alındı.
  • Mohr, S., Wandel, J., Lenggenhager, S., & Martins, O. (2019). Relationship between atmospheric blocking and warm-season thunderstorms over western and central Europe. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 145(724), 3040-3056. https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.3603
  • Özdemir, E. T., Deniz, A., Sezen, İ., Aslan, Z., & Yavuz, V. (2017). Investigation of thunderstorms over Ataturk International Airport (LTBA), Istanbul. Mausam, 68(1), 175-180.
  • Sharma, P., Sen B., Balling, J. R. C., Roy, S. S., & Sen Roy, S. (2023). Diurnal cycle of summer season thunderstorm activity in India. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 151(3-4), 1567-1583. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00704-022-04339-3
  • Tilev-Tanriover, Ş., Kahraman, A., Kadioglu, M., & Schultz, D. M. (2015). Lightning fatalities and injuries in Turkey. Natural Hazards and Earth System Science, 15(8), 1881-1888. https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-15-1881-2015
  • UCAR. (2023). How thunderstorms form. 28 Nisan 2023’de https://scied.ucar.edu/learning-zone/storms/how-thunderstorms-form adresinden alındı.
  • Unal, Y. S., Toros, H., Deniz, A., & Incecik, S. (2011). Influence of meteorological factors and emission sources on spatial and temporal variations of PM10 concentrations in Istanbul metropolitan area. Atmospheric Environment, 45(31), 5504–5513.
  • University of Wyoming. (2023). Upper-level atmospheric charts. 30 Nisan 2023’de http://weather.uwyo.edu/upperair/sounding.html adresinden alındı.
  • Yavuz, V., Özdemir, E. T., & Deniz, A. (2020). Nowcasting of a thunderstorm: The case study of 2 February, 2015 at Istanbul Ataturk International Airport. Mausam, 71(1), 21-32.
  • Yavuz, V., Özen, C., Çapraz, Ö., Özdemir, E. T., Deniz, A., Akbayır, İ., & Temur, H. (2022a). Analysing of atmospheric conditions and their effects on air quality in Istanbul using SODAR and CEILOMETER. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 29(11), 16213-16232. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-16958-w
  • Yavuz, V., Lupo, A. R., Fox, N. I., & Deniz, A. (2022b). Statistical characteristics of sea-effect snow events over the western Black Sea. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 150, 955-968. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00704-022-04213-2
  • Yavuz, V., Deniz, A., Özdemir, E. T., Karan, H., & Temiz, C. (2022c). Long-term thunderstorm analysis at airports in the Marmara Region: types and favourable atmospheric conditions. International Journal of Global Warming, 28(1), 81-95. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJGW.2022.125083
  • Yavuz, V., Lupo, A. R., Fox, N. I., & Deniz, A. (2022d). A long-term analysis of thundersnow events over the Marmara Region, Turkey. Natural Hazards, 114, 367-387. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-022-05393-w
  • Yavuz, V., Özdaş, M., Lupo, A. R., Fox, N. I., & Deniz, A. (2023). Historical extreme winters of Istanbul: the factors that contributed to severe winters during the 20th and 21st centuries. International Journal of Global Warming, 29(4), 350-361. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJGW.2023.130134
  • Yavuz, V. (2023). An analysis of atmospheric stability indices and parameters under air pollution conditions. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 195, Article 934. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-023-11556-4
There are 25 citations in total.

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation (Other)
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Muhammed Başpınar 0009-0000-9457-7641

Veli Yavuz 0000-0002-8873-3756

Publication Date January 28, 2024
Submission Date July 24, 2023
Acceptance Date October 16, 2023
Published in Issue Year 2024Volume: 10 Issue: 1

Cite

APA Başpınar, M., & Yavuz, V. (2024). İstanbul İçin Sıcak ve Soğuk Sezon Orajlarının Analizi. Doğal Afetler Ve Çevre Dergisi, 10(1), 89-102. https://doi.org/10.21324/dacd.1331804
AMA Başpınar M, Yavuz V. İstanbul İçin Sıcak ve Soğuk Sezon Orajlarının Analizi. J Nat Haz Environ. January 2024;10(1):89-102. doi:10.21324/dacd.1331804
Chicago Başpınar, Muhammed, and Veli Yavuz. “İstanbul İçin Sıcak Ve Soğuk Sezon Orajlarının Analizi”. Doğal Afetler Ve Çevre Dergisi 10, no. 1 (January 2024): 89-102. https://doi.org/10.21324/dacd.1331804.
EndNote Başpınar M, Yavuz V (January 1, 2024) İstanbul İçin Sıcak ve Soğuk Sezon Orajlarının Analizi. Doğal Afetler ve Çevre Dergisi 10 1 89–102.
IEEE M. Başpınar and V. Yavuz, “İstanbul İçin Sıcak ve Soğuk Sezon Orajlarının Analizi”, J Nat Haz Environ, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 89–102, 2024, doi: 10.21324/dacd.1331804.
ISNAD Başpınar, Muhammed - Yavuz, Veli. “İstanbul İçin Sıcak Ve Soğuk Sezon Orajlarının Analizi”. Doğal Afetler ve Çevre Dergisi 10/1 (January 2024), 89-102. https://doi.org/10.21324/dacd.1331804.
JAMA Başpınar M, Yavuz V. İstanbul İçin Sıcak ve Soğuk Sezon Orajlarının Analizi. J Nat Haz Environ. 2024;10:89–102.
MLA Başpınar, Muhammed and Veli Yavuz. “İstanbul İçin Sıcak Ve Soğuk Sezon Orajlarının Analizi”. Doğal Afetler Ve Çevre Dergisi, vol. 10, no. 1, 2024, pp. 89-102, doi:10.21324/dacd.1331804.
Vancouver Başpınar M, Yavuz V. İstanbul İçin Sıcak ve Soğuk Sezon Orajlarının Analizi. J Nat Haz Environ. 2024;10(1):89-102.